Genome growth and the evolution of the genotype-phenotype map   [GM]

by

Altenberg, L.

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Info: Evolution as a Computational Process, 1995, p. 205-259
Keywords:genetic algorithms, genetic programming
Abstract:
The evolution of new genes is distinct from evolution through allelic substitution in that new genes bring with them new degrees of freedom for genetic variability. Selection in the evolution of new genes can therefore act to sculpt the dimensions of variability in the genome. This ``constructional'' selection effect is an evolutionary mechanism, in addition to genetic modification, that can affect the variational properties of the genome and its evolvability. One consequence is a form of genic selection: genes with large potential for generating new useful genes when duplicated ought to proliferate in the genome, rendering it ever more capable of generating adaptive variants. A second consequence is that alleles of new genes whose creation produced a selective advantage may be more likely to also produce a selective advantage, provided that gene creation and allelic variation have correlated phenotypic effects. A fitness distribution model is analyzed which demonstrates these two effects quantitatively. These are effects that select on the nature of the genotype-phenotype map. New genes [GM] that perturb numerous functions under stabilizing selection, i.e. with high pleiotropy, are unlikely to be advantageous. Therefore, genes coming into the genome ought to exhibit low pleiotropy during their creation. If subsequent offspring genes also have low pleiotropy, then genic selection can occur. If subsequent allelic variation also has low pleiotropy, then that too should have a higher chance of not being deleterious. The effects on pleiotropy are illustrated with two model genotype-phenotype maps: Wagner's linear quantitative-genetic model with Gaussian selection, and Kauffman's ``NK'' adaptive landscape model. Constructional selection is compared with other processes and ideas about the evolution of constraints, evolvability, and the genotype-phenotype map. Empirical [GM] phenomena such as dissociability in development, morphological integration, and exon shuffling are discussed in the context of this evolutionary process. Copyright 1996 Lee Altenberg
Notes:
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BibTex:
@InCollection{Altenberg:1995GGEGPM,
  author =       "Lee Altenberg",
  year =         "1995",
  title =        "Genome growth and the evolution of the
                 genotype-phenotype map",
  booktitle =    "Evolution as a Computational Process",
  editor =       "Wolfgang Banzhaf and Frank H. Eeckman",
  publisher =    "Springer-Verlag",
  address =      "Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "205--259",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.mhpcc.edu/pub/incoming/altenberg/LeeGGEGPM.ps.Z",
  url_2 =        "http://pueo.mhpcc.edu/~altenber/PAPERS/LeeGGEGPM.html",
  size =         "55 pages",
  abstract =     "The evolution of new genes is distinct from evolution
                 through allelic substitution in that new genes bring
                 with them new degrees of freedom for genetic
                 variability. Selection in the evolution of new genes
                 can therefore act to sculpt the dimensions of
                 variability in the genome. This ``constructional''
                 selection effect is an evolutionary mechanism, in
                 addition to genetic modification, that can affect the
                 variational properties of the genome and its
                 evolvability.

                 One consequence is a form of genic selection: genes
                 with large potential for generating new useful genes
                 when duplicated ought to proliferate in the genome,
                 rendering it ever more capable of generating adaptive
                 variants. A second consequence is that alleles of new
                 genes whose creation produced a selective advantage may
                 be more likely to also produce a selective advantage,
                 provided that gene creation and allelic variation have
                 correlated phenotypic effects. A fitness distribution
                 model is analyzed which demonstrates these two effects
                 quantitatively.

                 These are effects that select on the nature of the
                 genotype-phenotype map. New genes that perturb numerous
                 functions under stabilizing selection, i.e. with high
                 pleiotropy, are unlikely to be advantageous. Therefore,
                 genes coming into the genome ought to exhibit low
                 pleiotropy during their creation. If subsequent
                 offspring genes also have low pleiotropy, then genic
                 selection can occur. If subsequent allelic variation
                 also has low pleiotropy, then that too should have a
                 higher chance of not being deleterious.

                 The effects on pleiotropy are illustrated with two
                 model genotype-phenotype maps: Wagner's linear
                 quantitative-genetic model with Gaussian selection, and
                 Kauffman's ``NK'' adaptive landscape model.
                 Constructional selection is compared with other
                 processes and ideas about the evolution of constraints,
                 evolvability, and the genotype-phenotype map. Empirical
                 phenomena such as dissociability in development,
                 morphological integration, and exon shuffling are
                 discussed in the context of this evolutionary
                 process.

                 Copyright 1996 Lee Altenberg",
  notes =        "

                 ",
}