Integrating symbolic processing into genetic algorithms   [GA]

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Koza, J., R.

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Info: Workshop on Integrating Symbolic and Neural Processes at AAAI-90 (Conference proceedings), 1990
Keywords:genetic algorithms, genetic programming
Abstract:
As will be seen, the LISP S-expression required to solve each of the problems described above will emerge from a simulated evolutionary process. This process will start with an initial population of randomly generated LISP S-expressions composed of functions and atoms appropriate to the problem domain. Then, a process based on the Darwinian model of reproduction and survival of the fittest and genetic recombination will be used to create a new population of individuals. In particular, a genetic process of sexual reproduction among two parental S-expressions will be used to create offspring S-expressions. At least one of two participating parental S-expressions will be selected in proportion to fitness. The resulting offspring S-expressions will be composed of sub-expressions ("building blocks") from their parents. Finally, the new population of offspring (i.e. the new generation) will replace the old population of parents and the process will continue. As will be seen, this highly parallel, locally controlled, and decentralized process will produce populations which, over a period of generations, tend to exhibit increasing average fitness in dealing with their environment, and which, in addition, can robustly (i.e. rapidly and effectively) adapt to changes in their environment.
Notes:
Presented at the Workshop on Integrating Symbolic and Neural Processes at AAAI-90 in Boston, MA, USA, July 29, 1990.
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BibTex:
@InProceedings{koza:1990:isp,
  author =       "John R. Koza",
  title =        "Integrating symbolic processing into genetic
                 algorithms",
  booktitle =    "Workshop on Integrating Symbolic and Neural Processes
                 at AAAI-90",
  year =         "1990",
  publisher =    "AAAI",
  keywords =     "genetic algorithms, genetic programming",
  abstract =     "Although genetic algorithms, like neural networks, are
                 seemingly inappropriate for handling symbolically
                 oriented problems, recent work in the fields of both
                 the genetic algorithm and neural network argues
                 otherwise. This presentation will discuss a group of
                 seemingly different problems from symbolic processing,
                 artificial intelligence, and machine learning which can
                 be solved using genetic algorithms if the appropriate
                 representation scheme and appropriate modifications to
                 the repertoire of genetic operations are adopted.

                 The approaches used in applying genetic algorithms to
                 such symbolic problems may shed light on the problem of
                 applying neural networks to symbolic problems.

                 Many problems from symbolic processing appear to be
                 inappropriate candidates for solution via genetic
                 algorithms because they, in effect, require discovery
                 of a computer program that produces some desired output
                 value when presented with particular inputs. However,
                 with an appropriate representation scheme and
                 appropriate modifications of the traditional genetic
                 operations, it is possible to genetically search the
                 space of possible computer programs for a most fit
                 individual computer program. In this new {"}genetic
                 programming{"} paradigm, populations of computer
                 programs (LISP symbolic expressions) are genetically
                 bred using the Darwinian principle of survival of the
                 fittest and using a genetic crossover (recombination)
                 operator appropriate for genetically mating computer
                 programs.

                 Depending on the terminology of the particular field of
                 interest, the {"}computer program{"} may be called a
                 robotic action plan, an optimal control strategy, a
                 decision tree, an econometric model, a game-playing
                 strategy, the state transition equations, the transfer
                 function, or, perhaps merely, a composition of
                 functions. Similarly, the {"}inputs{"} to the
                 {"}computer program{"} may be called sensor values,
                 state variables, independent variables, attributes of
                 an object, or, perhaps more prosaically, the arguments
                 to a function.

                 The methods for applying genetic algorithms to symbolic
                 problems are illustrated using examples from the areas
                 of function learning, robotic planning, symbolic
                 function identification, symbolic regression, symbolic
                 integration and differentiation, symbolic solution of
                 differential equations, game-playing, sequence
                 induction, empirical discovery and econometric
                 modeling, concept formation, automatic programming ,
                 pattern recognition, time-optimal control. Problems of
                 the type described above can be expeditiously solved
                 only if the flexibility found in computer programs is
                 available. This flexibility includes the ability to
                 perform alternative computations conditioned on the
                 outcome of intermediate calculations, to perform
                 computations on variables of many different types, to
                 perform iterations and recursions to achieve the
                 desired result, and to define and subsequently use
                 computed values and sub-programs.

                 The process of solving these problems can be
                 reformulated as a search for a most fit individual
                 computer program in the space of possible computer
                 programs composed of various terms (atoms) along with
                 standard arithmetic operations, standard programming
                 operations, standard mathematical functions, and
                 various functions peculiar to the given problem domain.
                 Four types of objects are manipulated as we build
                 computer programs, namely, functions of various number
                 of arguments; variable atoms; constant atoms; and
                 control structures such as If-Then-Else, Do-Until,
                 etc.",
  abstract =     "As will be seen, the LISP S-expression required to
                 solve each of the problems described above will emerge
                 from a simulated evolutionary process. This process
                 will start with an initial population of randomly
                 generated LISP S-expressions composed of functions and
                 atoms appropriate to the problem domain. Then, a
                 process based on the Darwinian model of reproduction
                 and survival of the fittest and genetic recombination
                 will be used to create a new population of individuals.
                 In particular, a genetic process of sexual reproduction
                 among two parental S-expressions will be used to create
                 offspring S-expressions. At least one of two
                 participating parental S-expressions will be selected
                 in proportion to fitness. The resulting offspring
                 S-expressions will be composed of sub-expressions
                 ({"}building blocks{"}) from their parents. Finally,
                 the new population of offspring (i.e. the new
                 generation) will replace the old population of parents
                 and the process will continue.

                 As will be seen, this highly parallel, locally
                 controlled, and decentralized process will produce
                 populations which, over a period of generations, tend
                 to exhibit increasing average fitness in dealing with
                 their environment, and which, in addition, can robustly
                 (i.e. rapidly and effectively) adapt to changes in
                 their environment.",
  notes =        "Presented at the Workshop on Integrating Symbolic and
                 Neural Processes at AAAI-90 in Boston, MA, USA, July
                 29, 1990.",
}